GSM Based AMR

  • GSM based AMR has low infrastructure
    cost and it reduces man power. The system is fully
    automatic, hence the probability of error is reduced. The
    data is highly secured and it not only solve the problem
    of traditional meter reading system but also provides
    additional features such as power disconnection,
    reconnection and the concept of power management.
    The database stores the current month and also all the
    previous month data for the future use. Hence the
    system saves a lot amount of time and energy. Due to the
    power fluctuations, there might be a damage in the home
    appliances. Hence to avoid such damages and to protect
    the appliances, the voltage controlling method can be
    implemented.
    Index Terms—GSM, AMR, Power Management
    I. INTRODUCTION
    In those days traditional meters are used for
    energy meter reading. At the end of each month a person
    from the EB office comes to the home for taking the meter
    reading. This takes much time and also causes error in
    reading. To overcome this problem, we use GSM based
    Automatic Meter Reading system. The development of a
    GSM automatic power meter reading system (GAPMR) is
    presented in [1]. GAPMR System consists of GSM Digital
    power Meters installed in every consumer unit and
    Electricity e-billing system at every provider side. It
    consists of standard compliance digital kWh power meter
    with embedded GSM modem which utilizes the GSM
    network to send its power usage reading using SMS back to
    energy provider wirelessly. At the power provider side an
    e-billing system is used to manage all received SMS meter
    reading, compute the billing cost, update the database, and
    to publish the billing notification to its respective consumer
    throughSMS.
    The remedy for all the problems like is labor
    consuming, errors with electro-mechanical meters, human
    errors while noting down the meter readings etc, is the
    GPMC GSM based power meter and control system[2]. In
    this system the track of the meter reading of each day and the
    reading with the user identification number send to the user
    as well as to the electricity department and Electricity
    e-billing system associated with electricity department will
    keep the track of each SMS meter reading and the
    appropriate bill get generated at the last day of the month
    and the bill is forwarded to user from the server. So there is
    no chance of confusion to the user for paying the bill.
    II. PROPOSED SYSTEM
    Fig.1. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AMR SYSTEM PLACEDAT HOME
    Microcontroller is interfaced with the GSM module and
    energy meter. According to the power consumption, the
    meter reading continuously gets incremented. For the
    implementation of this system, a SIM card is required for the
    GSM module and an identification (ID) number is allotted to
    each customer. According to the requirement of the data,
    electricity department can send a message to the particular
    customer’s energy meter. When microcontroller receives
    the message, its respective port bits are high and an
    interrupt signal occurs.
    Microcontroller starts to execute to the interrupt service
    subroutine until it reaches last instruction of the subroutine.
    After the execution of RET instruction, microcontroller
    returns to the main program and continues incrementing.
    Every one month, the data will be sent to the electricity
    board automatically and also the electricity board can access
    the system at any time on request. Receiving this meter
    reading every month, the bill amount is calculated and sent
    to the microcontroller which displays the unit consumed
    and the bill amount. Notifying this message on the LCD
    display, the customer has to pay the bill on time that can be
    done through credit card, debit card or even by net banking.
    A separate database is followed by the authority that stores
    all the information about each customer and their bill
    statement. Failing to pay the bill will lead to the power
    disconnection that is again done by the microcontroller by
    receiving the message from the electricity board.
    ISSN (ONLINE) : 2395-695X
    ISSN (PRINT) : 2395-695X
    Available online at www.ijarbest.com
    International Journal of Advanced Research in Biology, Ecology, Science and Technology (IJARBEST)
    Vol. 1, Issue 4, July 2015
    27
    T (inst) = (MC  Cn) / (crystal frequency)
    III. SYSTEM DESIGN
    The microcontroller used here is P89C51RD2BN.The
    expansion of the part number of this microcontroller is given
    below.
    Fig.2. 89C51 MICROCONTROLLER
    The P89C51RD2BN contains a non-volatile 64KB
    Flash program memory that is both parallel programmable
    and serial In-System and In- Application Programmable.
    In-System Programming (ISP) allows the user to download
    new code while the microcontroller sits in the application.
    In- Application Programming (IAP) means that the
    microcontroller fetches new program code and reprograms
    itself while in the system. This allows for remote
    programming over a modem link. A default serial loader
    (boot loader) program in ROM allows serial In-System
    programming of the Flash memory via the UART without
    the need for a loader in the Flash code. For In-Application
    Programming, the user program erases and reprograms the
    Flash memory by use of standard routines contained in
    ROM. The device supports 6-clock/12-clock mode
    selection by programming a Flash bit using parallel
    programming or In-System Programming. In addition, an
    SFR bit (X2) in the clock control register (CKCON) also
    selects between 6-clock/12-clock mode. Additionally, when
    in 6-clock mode, peripherals may use either 6 clocks per
    machine cycle or 12 clocks per machine cycle. The device
    also has four 8-bit I/O ports, three 16- bit timer/event
    counters, a multi-source, four-priority-level, nested interrupt
    structure, an enhanced UART and on-chip oscillator and
    timing circuits. The added features of the P89C51RD2BN
    make it a powerful microcontroller for applications that
    require pulse width modulation, high-speed I/O and
    up/down counting capabilities such as motor control.
    The time to execute the instruction is calculated
    by using the following expression,
    Number of Machine Cycles for an instruction to execute
    and Cn is the number of clock cycles for one machine cycle.
    For 89C51RD2BN the number of clock cycles for one
    machine cycle is 12. For example, if thenumber of machine
    cycles to execute a instruction is 1 and the oscillator
    frequency used is 11.0592MHz, the time to execute an
    instruction is 1.085 s.
    Basic Features of 89C51
     80C51 Central Processing Unit
     On-chip Flash Program Memory with In-System
    Programming (ISP)
     In Application Programming (IAP) capability
     Boot ROM contains low-level Flash
    programming routines for downloading
    via the UART
     Supports 6-clock/12-clock mode via
    parallel programmer (default clock mode
    after Chip Erase is 12-clock
     6-clock/12-clock mode Flash bit erasable and
    programmable via ISP
     6-clock/12-clock mode programmable
    “on-the-fly” by SFR bit
     Peripherals (PCA, timers, UART) may
    use either 6-clock or 12- clock mode
    while the CPU is in 6-clockmode
     Speed up to 20 MHz with 6-clock cycles
    per machine cycle (40 MHz equivalent
    performance); up to 33 MHz with 12
    clocks per machine cycle
     Fully static operation
     RAM expandable externally to 64-kilo
    bytes
     Four interrupt priority levels
     Seven interrupt sources
     Four 8-bit I/O ports
     Full-duplex enhanced UART
     Framing error detection
     Automatic address recognition
     Power control modes
     Clock can be stopped and resumed
     Idle mode
     Power down mode
     Programmable clock-out pin
     Second DPTR register
     Asynchronous port reset
     Low EMI (inhibit ALE)
     Programmable Counter Array (PCA)
     PWM
     Capture/compare
    Liquid crystals are a phase of matter whose order is
    intermediate between that of a liquid and that of a crystal.
    The molecules are typically rod-shaped organic matters
    about 25 Angstroms in length and their ordering is a function
    of temperature. The molecular orientation can be controlled
    with applied electric fields. LCD is made up of two sheets
    of polarizing material with the liquid crystal solution
    between them. An electric current passed through the
    ISSN (ONLINE) : 2395-695X
    ISSN (PRINT) : 2395-695X
    Available online at www.ijarbest.com
    International Journal of Advanced Research in Biology, Ecology, Science and Technology (IJARBEST)
    Vol. 1, Issue 4, July 2015
    28
    liquid causes the crystals to align so that light
    cannot pass through them, which results in display of
    character as per the applied voltage in its data lines. The
    driver is provided to drive the LCD. It stores the display data
    transferred from the microcontroller in the internal display
    RAM and generates dot matrix liquid crystal driving signals.
    Each bit data of display RAM corresponds to on/off state of
    a dot of a liquid crystal
    display.
    Fig.3. LCD PIN DESCRIPTION
    A type of relay that can handle the high power
    required to directly control an electric motor or other loads
    is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power
    circuits with no moving parts, instead using a
    semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with
    calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple
    operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from
    overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these
    functions are performed by digital instruments still called
    "protective relays".
    IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
    GSM was designed to grow and meet the needs
    of new technologies. GSM is currently composed of EDGE,
    3GSM, and GPSR. Each member of the family is designed
    to solve a particular need.
    EDGE is an upper level component used for
    advanced mobile services such as downloading music clips,
    video clips, and multimedia messages. GPSR is designed for
    “always-on” systems that are needed for web-browsing.
    3GSM is the GSM running on third generation standards for
    multimedia services.
    GSM Network consists of three main parts:
     Mobile Station (MS): carried by the subscriber.
     Base Station Subsystem (BSS): controls radio
    link with mobile station. Network & Switching
    Subsystem (NSS): mobility management and
    switching of calls between mobile users, and
    between mobile and fixed network users.
    Fig.4.LAYOUT OF SYSTEM PLACED AT EB OFFICE
    V. CONCLUSION
    GSM based AMR has low infrastructure cost and it
    reduces man power. The system is fully automatic, hence the
    probability of error is reduced. The data is highly secured
    and it not only solve the problem of traditional meter reading
    system but also provides additional features such as power
    disconnection, reconnection and the concept of power
    management. The database stores the current month and
    also all the previous month data for the future use. Hence the
    system saves a lot amount of time and energy. Due to the
    power fluctuations, there might be a damage in the home
    appliances. Hence to avoid such damages and to protect
    the appliances, the voltage controlling method can be
    implemented.
    REFERENCES
    [1] Amin S. Mehmood, T. Choudhry, M.A. Hanif, 2005 IEEE , A
    “Reviewing the Technical Issues for the Effective Construction of
    Automatic Meter Reading System” in International Conference on
    Microelectronics.
    [2] Bharath, P.; Ananth, N.; Vijetha, S.; Prakash, K.V.J.; 2008
    “Wireless Automated Digital Energy Meter” in Sustainable Energy
    Technologies, ICSET.
    [3] Chih-Hung Wu; Shun-Chien Chang; Yu-Wei Huang; 2004 IEEE
    “Design of a wireless ARM-based automatic meter reading and control
    system” in Power Engineering Society General Meeting.
    [4] Liting Cao, Jingwen Tian and Dahang Zhang, 2006 IEEE “Networked
    Remote Meter-Reading System Based on Wireless Communication
    Technology” in International Conference on Information Acquisition.
    [5] Liting Cao, Wei Jiang, Zhaoli Zhang Oct. 2006, 2009 Automatic Meter
    ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf.